Bluish-red, oedematous, painful nodular inflammatory swellings which arise as an abnormal reaction to cold. They occur especially on the dorsal aspects of the fingers and toes, the lower legs, thighs, nose and ears. Chilblains tend to start in spring and autumn, especially in individuals working in the open air in the early cold morning hours. Women are affected more often than men. The patients often exhibit autonomic disorders in the periphery, such as acrocyanosis, cutis marmorata, erythrocyanosis crurum puellarum or hyperhidrosis.
Chilblain, Chilblains, Erythema pernio, Erythema, pernio, Erythematous, pernio, Pernio, Perniosis
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